Educational Articles

Tumors + English

  • Chondrosarcomas arise from cartilage, which is a connective tissue primarily found where bones meet with joints, as well as at other locations in the body (such as the nasal cavity, ribs, etc.). Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumor in dogs. Canine chondrosarcoma most commonly affects the flat bones of the body, such as the ribs, skull, nasal cavity and pelvis, although the limbs can also be affected. Aggressive surgical resection is typically recommended, although radiation therapy may also be used (depending on location). Metastasis may occur, but is relatively uncommon.

  • A cutaneous histiocytoma is a common benign (harmless) tumor of the skin in dogs, typically younger ones. Their development, appearance, diagnosis, and treatment are explained in this handout.

  • Cutaneous histiocytosis is an uncommon condition in dogs. It is a non-cancerous increase in the number of reactive cells (histiocytes) caused by an immune system dysfunction. It generally manifests as multiple bumps and nodules confined to the dog's skin. The clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition are explained in this handout.

  • Skin cancers are common in cats, but cutaneous lymphoma is relatively uncommon. Less than 2% of lymphoma cases in cats occur in the skin. As the disease progresses, the skin becomes thickened, reddened, ulcerated, and may ooze fluid. The most common locations to find lesions include the junction between mucus membranes and the skin. Unfortunately, feline cutaneous lymphoma is considered incurable. Surgical removal can be attempted for solitary lesions, although the tumor often returns to the area or will have spread elsewhere in the body already

  • Systemic lymphoma is a very common cancer in dogs, but the cutaneous form is quite rare. Current statistics suggest that cutaneous lymphoma accounts for only about 5% of canine lymphoma cases. The disease can present in a variety of lesions, including ulcers, nodules, red patches, and areas of hair loss and skin scaling. Because not very much is known about canine cutaneous lymphoma, there are no standard treatment protocols and the prognosis is poor.

  • Cutaneous papillomatosis is the development of papillomas (non-cancerous growths, or warts) caused by the papillomavirus and affects many pet birds. Commonly affected species are finches, canaries, cockatiels, budgerigars, and African grey parrots. The clinical signs and treatment for this condition are explained in this handout.

  • Cytology is the microscopic examination of cell samples. Cytology can be used to diagnose growths or masses found on the surface of the body, and also to assess bodily fluids, internal organs, and abnormal fluids that may accumulate, especially in the chest and abdomen. Cells can be collected using various methods including fine needle aspiration, skin scraping, impression smear, cotton-tipped swabs, or lavage. A biopsy is the surgical removal of a representative sample of tissue from a suspicious lesion. The most common biopsy techniques are punch biopsy, wedge biopsy, and excision biopsy. The tissue is then processed and is examined under a microscope via histopathology. Histopathology allows the veterinary pathologist to make a diagnosis, classify the tumor, and predict the course of the disease.

  • Common conditions of pet rabbits include upper respiratory tract infections, internal and external parasites, dental disease, GI stasis, uterine problems, and pododermatitis. Upper respiratory infections are often caused by bacteria including Pasteurella multocida. Rabbits can become infected with various intestinal parasites, as well as external parasites such as ear and fur mites, fleas, and occasionally ticks. Rabbits’ teeth are continuously growing but chewing food, as well as chewing on wooden blocks, branches, and toys, helps them wear their teeth down at a rate equal to their growth. Occasionally, tooth or jaw trauma or disease causes misalignment of the upper and lower jaws and overgrowth of teeth results. Regular yearly check-ups enables early diagnosis and treatment of some rabbit diseases. Whenever a rabbit stops eating, for whatever reason, it is important to take her to see your veterinarian immediately for an evaluation.

  • Common conditions of pet rodents include respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal problems, dental problems, and tumors. Signs of respiratory disease in rodents include nasal and/or ocular discharge in mild infections, and wheezing, coughing, and open-mouth breathing in severe infections. Gastrointestinal disease, including diarrhea from various causes and gastrointestinal stasis is common in pet rodents. All rodents have teeth that grow continuously throughout their lives. Occasionally, these teeth grow too long and cut into the gums, causing pain, or prevent the mouth from closing properly, which often makes the pet stop eating. Just as in people, cancer is often seen in pet rodents, especially mammary (breast) tumors in rats and mice. Rodents with signs of respiratory or GI disease or evidence of a tumor should be seen by a veterinarian who can properly diagnose and treat the underlying condition.

  • Ear canal tumors can be benign or malignant. Diagnosis is typically via fine needle aspiration or tissue biopsy. The treatment of choice for ear canal tumors is surgical excision. For benign tumors, complete surgical removal is curative. With malignant tumors, a CT scan is often performed prior to surgery to determine how invasive the tumor is and enable surgical planning. Total ear canal ablation and bulla osteotomy (TECA-BO) is the most common surgical option. Radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be pursued.